When the TV show “Dirty Jobs” first hit the airwaves in 2005, I was mildly amused by the idea of this actor guy who subjected himself to performing nasty tasks like hog castration, snake sexing and bird vomit inspection. We yukked it up along with Mike Rowe and his crew as they got very, very dirty and we learned about the weirder side of America’s lesser-known workplaces.
But, along the way, the stinky and gooey parts of more than 300 different filthy jobs began to take a backseat to another aspect of the show: getting to know typical Americans who work hard behind the scenes and do important things that benefit others.
Over the years I became a regular viewer of “Dirty Jobs,” but I also became a fan of Mike Rowe himself. Here’s a guy who faked his way into an opera singing job 20+ years ago and since then has become an iconic TV host, voiceover king, corporate spokesman for Ford, CAT and others, big fan of the Green Industry and, more recently, an advocate for the idea that not everyone needs a college degree and that labor – hard work using one’s own hands – is a rewarding and valuable thing.
In short, I think Mike Rowe is far more in touch with the pulse of America than any member of Congress or big city mayor. I also like the fact that he’s apolitical. It’s not about politics... it’s about common sense. You can learn a lot of great stuff about his foundation and what he’s trying to accomplish here: www.profoundlydisconnected.com.
I decided I had to talk about Rowe this month after a simple Facebook post he wrote last month pretty much blew my mind because it perfectly captured the whole Millennial angst problem but it also speaks volumes about America today. A young person wrote him for career advice and he responded... well, read it for yourself. Here’s a shortened version. You can find the whole thing on his site:
“Consider your own words. You don’t want a career - you want the “right” career. You need “excitement” and “adventure,” but not at the expense of stability. You want lots of “change” and the “freedom to travel,” but you need the certainty of “steady pay.” You talk about being “easily bored” as though boredom is out of your control. It isn’t. Boredom is a choice. Like tardiness. Or interrupting. It’s one thing to “love the outdoors,” but you take it a step further. You vow to “never” take an office job. You talk about the needs of your family, even though that family doesn’t exist. And finally, you say the career you describe must “always” make you “happy.”
“Stop looking for the “right” career, and start looking for a job. Any job. Forget about what you like. Focus on what’s available. Get yourself hired. Show up early. Stay late. Volunteer for the scut work. Become indispensable. You can always quit later, and be no worse off than you are today. But don’t waste another year looking for a career that doesn’t exist. And most of all, stop worrying about your happiness. Happiness does not come from a job. It comes from knowing what you truly value, and behaving in a way that’s consistent with those beliefs.
“Many people today resent the suggestion that they’re in charge of the way they feel. But trust me, Parker. Those people are mistaken. That was a big lesson from Dirty Jobs, and I learned it several hundred times before it stuck. What you do, who you’re with, and how you feel about the world around you, is completely up to you.”
This country needs way less Kim Kardashian and way more Mike Rowe. Let’s never forget there is honor and great reward in simple hard work. And let’s teach our kids that lesson, too.
Way back in 2010, I was asked to play Nostradamus at the annual Wisconsin Golf Turf Symposium. I guess they thought I was old enough – at that point, we’d been in business for 26 years – to come up with plausible golf industry predictions.
Just the other day, with four years more experience, I happened upon those predictions. I want to share them with you – along with some current comments about how I did – or, in some cases, did not – hit the mark.
Maybe, when I come down from the euphoria of nailing so many of these, I’ll forego another round of predictions and take this uncanny ability straight to the stock market.
China will eclipse the record U.S. course openings from the 1990s, but will repeat the mistakes of the U.S. by building too many difficult, up-scale facilities and neglecting the need for beginner golf.
China hasn’t been opening golf courses at a rate of 300 or 400 a year, which was the high water mark here in the States back in the go-go ‘90s. It’s been more like 75-100 per year since 2010, though it’s difficult to get reliable numbers in a country where the government has imposed a course-building moratorium – and developers go ahead and build them anyway, under the radar. Anyway, I was all wet on the numbers. But I’ll stand by the “repeating mistakes” part: Nearly all these new Chinese courses are private, very expensive to join, and many are relying on real-estate components to make them economically viable. And we all know where THAT leads.
Course closures (750 to 1,000 by 2020) will continue to outpace openings. New openings will include alternative and mixed-use facilities.
In 2013, the U.S. golf market experienced its eighth straight year where course closures outpaced course openings. There were 14 openings in 2013 and 154.5 closures (all but five of them public courses). The net loss of approximately 140 18-hole equivalents has held steady the last three years. While the annual net losses were smaller from 2006-2010, do the math. Methinks I nailed this one. This correction could well persist through 2020, and the idea that we’ll see more than 100 new openings per year? Those days seem gone forever.
Courses will look to alternative sources for player development, means of revenue, and use of their property.
I hinted at this in prediction No. 2 and here again. The bottom line is, we see evidence of this more and more, both first-hand and anecdotally. I think we all had a sense that programs like the First Tee would result in “alternative” practice facilities and short courses. If you’ve read my columns here at GCI.com, you know that we are supportive of First Tee, but also Links Across America, which we consider an even better model (we’ve personally been involved in designing/creating/opening three such alternative facilities). So this prediction was something of a no-brainer. What we didn’t see coming (but which I predicted just the same) was the advent of disc golf and even footgolf at existing “traditional” golf facilities. We have two client courses that will be incorporating the latter into their routings starting this spring. These alternative uses are being incorporated into golf courses, in the same way fishing derbies, winter sports and hiking trails are being incorporated. The pace of this has surprised me, but it was only a matter of time. Especially at public courses, what’s the difference between setting up a disc course within the traditional golf course, and having a wedding in the clubhouse? Revenue is revenue.
Clubs, especially private, will have to find ways to market to the next generation.
I think the advent of social media strategies is enough proof that this has taken hold, in a huge way. Four years ago, I don’t know that many of us would have predicted that private clubs would have Facebook pages and Twitter feeds. But they do. Meantime, look for all courses, but especially private clubs, to actively and creatively alter courses set-ups to allow for 3- and 6-hole loops, for folks short of time and attention span.
Existing courses will capitalize on alternative means for funding renovation efforts.
Again, I’ll take credit for being spot on with this one – but with so many publically owned facilities struggling today, as we’ve noted above, it’s really a matter of renovating or closing their doors. What I couldn’t foresee, but perhaps should have, is the way some municipalities have leveraged stormwater and water-quality management projects to pay for these renovations. We at LGD and Golf Creations have been involved in dozens of projects where our renovation work aided a city’s water-retention and/or water-filtration efforts. But we didn’t see this coming in 2010: New state statutes recently obliged the city of Appleton, Wisconsin to improve water quality and stormwater retention, vis a vis the nearby Lower Fox River. The city wisely used Reid Municipal GC to make this happen – and the city paid for what turned out to be a substantial course renovation, because you can’t add all those ponds and wetlands without radically changing a course routing. This is a model that should be followed elsewhere, including private clubs.
Courses will do "more with less," employing unique, affordable renovation strategies to make improvements and upgrade infrastructure.
Hardly rocket science, this prediction. The way golf courses spent money in the years prior to the economic downturn of 2008 simply wasn’t sustainable. To me, however, the solutions golf has deployed in response to tighter budgets is the lemonade we’ve created – having been handed such a big basket of lemons. The gas and regrass option, for example, has proved a fine alternative to costly, full-on greens renovation/reconstruction. Ditto for push-up greens construction. Four years ago, I would never have dreamed our renovation jobs would feature so much in-house labor, meaning course maintenance crews. The biggest and most significant cost-saving advance might just be the Asset Management Plan, or AMP, whereby we at LGD deconstruct a master renovation plan, break it into affordable chunks, and help clubs work those projects into annual budgets.
Course managers will challenge tradition in the way they setup and market their product.
I’m not a marketer, but I think golf still has a ways to go in the non-traditional marketing department. So the jury’s still out on that front, and we’re making slow progress on the set-up side. Here’s one step forward: Mike Sprouse, the super at Randall Oaks GC in Dundee Township, Ill., has experimented with allowing golfers to tee it up wherever they choose. No markers. This essentially allows people to “Tee It Forward”, the program promoted by the ASGCA. But Mike’s experiments are unique in that they also provide him real useful information on usage and wear, i.e. where his teeing grounds should be bigger, smaller or eliminated altogether. We know Mike because we designed a Links Across America short course there at Randall Oaks, back in 2010 actually, and have been helping him upgrade the 18-hole course since the 1980s. I will probably talk to Mike further for an upcoming article, because I love what he’s doing. In the meantime, I’m still waiting for the tech revolution to allow for flexible course rating and handicapping, meaning from all yardages, using GPS.
Management companies will continue growing their portfolios in the private and public sectors.
If courses are going out of business in such numbers, a certain percentage of those courses can surely be plucked by management companies for pennies on the dollar. So, it’s no surprise that management portfolios are growing. The NGF confirms that here. Of course, I think the economic downturn probably separates the truly competent management companies from their less competent competitors. I’d like to see some figures from the NGF that show the number of course closures where the facilities had been under third-party management the previous 36 months.
Courses will invest in upgrades with long-term sustainability and impacts on maintenance.
I think golf did an all-around admirable job of developing more efficient irrigation control, water conservation, water sourcing and heat/drought-tolerant turf species before the downtown. So it’s no surprise that these efforts have taken on more urgency in the four years since this prediction. Of course, it’s one thing to have these advances available – the powers that be at golf facilities still have to pay for them, and that’s a tall order these days. Look at Better Billy Bunkers. These are proven cost-savers in the long run, especially in terms of man-hours. But they require a significant investment. And lookee here: GCI poobah Pat Jones weighs in with a whole new generation of technical diagnostics, most of which should lead to economic or resource efficiencies. Unfortunately, it’s not clear to me whether enough golf courses are making the necessary technological investments today.
Golf course architects will be relied on more to be team facilitators rather than mere designers.
There is no better example of this prediction coming true than the AMP process. I never thought we’d be so intimately involved with a client’s long-term budgeting, which is a facilitating role if there ever was one. But when you’re economizing, it’s a no-brainer. And architects are uniquely placed to serve in this role, because our relationships with clients are normally long-term. It’s already happening and I’m convinced that what we architects refer to as “the creative process,” once limited to drawing pretty pictures, will increasingly focus as much on implementation and delivery as it does on the design itself.
Bob Lohmann is founder, president, and principal architect of Lohmann Golf Designs and a frequent GCI contributor. Check out his blog at lohmanncompanies.blogspot.com.
There is a plethora of abiotic causes for poor turfgrass quality, including traffic stress, compaction, improper fertility, incorrect use of pesticides, shade, poor drainage, too much or too little water, high temperature (especially soil temperature), cold injury, and other factors. And all of these issues are one big headache for superintendents who must deal with them on their course’s playing surfaces.
“They are widespread. I have seen abiotic issues across the country,” says Dr. Lee Miller, extension turfgrass pathologist at the University of Missouri. Black layer, heat stress, drought stress, shade stress, too much moisture, mechanical damage, layering of sand-based putting greens are some of the many problems in turfgrass systems and actually from the perspective of our diagnostic lab they significantly outnumber biotic problems of turfgrass systems.”
Common abiotic disorders associated with winter include deicing salt injury, crown hydration, winterkill or low temperature kill, and desiccation. Some of the common abiotic disorders during the growing season include oversaturated soils, compaction, wear, drought, wet wilt, nutrient deficiency or toxicity, and chemical phytotoxicity.
“In our turfgrass diagnostic lab, approximately 50 to 60 percent of the damage in received samples are caused by abiotic disorders and not the result of an infectious disease,” Miller says.
“The No. 1 abiotic disorder we observe in our diagnostic clinic is an oversaturated rootzone,” he adds. “This condition can be caused by over irrigation or too much organic matter, which acts like a sponge and holds the water. Add a bit of heat or physiological stress onto a creeping bentgrass green with a saturated soil condition, and decline can occur very rapidly. We use the acronym SHRS, or soggy hot root syndrome, to describe this decline.”
What is it?
According to Dr. Brad Fresenburg, assistant extension professor with the University of Missouri’s Division of Pant Sciences, the keys to distinguishing between abiotic problems and biotic problems are as follows:
Other than oxygen deprivation in a pore-filled rootzone, a variety of factors can result in decline. For example, water resiliently holds onto its temperature, so once the soil solution heats up, it takes an extended duration or level of cool temperatures to bring it back down. Secondly, fungal pathogens such as pythium root rot thrive in a waterlogged soil, and appreciate the resultant weakened and compromised root tissue to infect. Soil nutrients and beneficial aerobic microflora also may be diluted in a flooded soil profile, so nutrient availability for turfgrass health, defense or recovery may be limiting.
Abiotic causes for turfgrass problems can be widespread, and many times they are mistaken as biotic causes, such as turfgrass diseases, says Dr. Brad Fresenburg, assistant extension professor with the University of Missouri’s Division of Pant Sciences.
“So if we look at the weather, extreme heat (high soil temps reduce root mass) or cold (extreme cold temps can cause winter desiccation of warm-season grasses like Bermudagrass and zoysiagrass) can have an impact on turfgrass quality,” Fresenburg says.
Too much rain (saturated soils reduce soil oxygen and reduce nutrient uptake) versus too little rain (leads to wilting and dormancy) are abiotic. Imbalances of nutrients in the soil can cause symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth. Ice salt, chemical spills (such as gasoline), misapplications of pesticides, underground gas leaks, animal urine and shade from trees are all abiotic causes to poor quality turfgrasses, since all have an impact on the normal growth of that plant on a continuous basis.
In addition, poor cultural practices for turfgrass management can also be considered abiotic. Mowing too close or scalping the turf can produce poor quality. Lack of soil testing and improper fertilization can lead to nutrient imbalances. Lack of aeration or soil cultivation can lead to compacted soils therefore reducing root mass and leading to a weak plant being more susceptible to drought. Lack of or too much irrigation can have the same impacts as too much rain or too little rain.
Richard Buckley, coordinator of the Plant Diagnostic Laboratory at Rutgers University, believes many researchers and superintendents think of abiotic stress in terms of physical (temperature and moisture extremes), chemical (problems with pesticides, fertilizers, and other plant health care products), and mechanical (traffic, scalping, etc).
“I also like to think of damage from abiotic causes in terms of the weather, site condition and infrastructure, and people problems,” he says. “In our laboratory, we diagnose about 38 percent of our samples with abiotic stress. Temperature and moisture stress – extremes hot/cold and dry/wet – or some combination of both cause most of the problems.”
Some abiotic stresses are site-specific, related to management practices or events at that location, says Dr. Megan Kennelly, associate professor at Kansas State University’s Department of Plant Pathology. Others are more widespread, such as winter injury across a whole region, or summer decline from hot, humid conditions across a large area.
For example, 2010 was a hot, humid summer in Kansas and many other states and hot, water-saturated soils led to wide scale turf decline, Kennelly says. In contrast, 2012 was a major drought in many places, and water quantity and quality issues were a big story that year.
“In early spring we see a lot of areas are with some cold damage as the grasses are greening up,” he says. “During hot, stressful summers there can be abiotic decline across large areas.”
Abiotic turfgrass problems can develop into specific patches and symptoms that may mimic root diseases.
“There are numerous instances when we look at a turf sample that has symptoms that resemble a root disease such as take-all patch, pythium root rot, or Bermudagrass decline, but after examination we cannot find enough of the causal organism to conclude a disease has truly developed,” Kennelly says. “Plus we also look at the soil structure, rooting, salt accumulation and with all of that data plus a record from the golf course superintendent, we conclude that something abiotic is the main cause of the problem.”
Turfgrass is a very dynamic system with an abundance of microbial activity. Most if not all common turf pathogens are present in soil samples, Kearns says, but turf managers have to make a judgment call on when the symptoms, the signs of the organism (and the amount) and environmental conditions are correct for a disease.”
“The disease triangle is a fundamental concept in plant pathology that states that a virulent pathogen, a susceptible host and a conducive environment must come together in a specific point in time in order for disease to develop,” Kearns says. “Thus, disease is actually a relatively rare event in nature. Since golfers demand a monoculture and certain playing conditions, golf course superintendents are required to manage their playing surfaces on the verge of death, essentially. Therefore abiotic and biotic problems plague golf course turfgrass. The key is developing a good relationship with a diagnostic lab that can help managers distinguish between abiotic and biotic problems.”
If a crew member burns the grass with a pesticide or hydraulic fluid there will be an unmistakable pattern. Temperature and moisture stress, however, are often non-descript and manifest as general yellowing and thinning, both symptoms used to describe any number of diseases.
Determining the root cause of damage on putting greens or any turfgrass area can be challenging. Plant symptoms often look very similar, and a superintendent should be wary of advice coming solely from a “six-foot” (or standing height) perspective.
The first step is to ask: What is different about this green or area from others that look fine? Is there more water or is it not draining well? Was there a product misapplication? Is it shaded or tucked in the corner?
Secondly, look for patterns. Damage caused by an infectious disease is often randomly scattered across an area, and most diseases can only infect or are more aggressive on one turfgrass species (bentgrass vs. Poa annua) as opposed to another. Also, infectious diseases normally don’t occur in straight lines, which is a stand symptom indicative of an equipment leak or chemical misapplication. Lastly, get a diagnostic visit, send or take a sample to your local turfgrass pathologist.
Richard Buckley, coordinator of the Plant Diagnostic Laboratory at Rutgers University, provides some additional helpful hints to diagnose abiotic stress in your turf.
“Careful observations of your site, the weather, and your treatment effects will tell you what happened -- just open up to the possibilities……and use a professional for help,” he says.
To determine what may be going on with your turf is to document symptoms with photos or try to see patterns. “The key to diagnosing many odd abiotic possibilities is to ask questions about what may have been done recently cultural practices, pesticide applications, weather information,” Dr. Fresenburg says. “Sometimes those actions can point a finger to the cause and you can remedy the problem.”
Buckley believes diagnosing abiotic stress amounts to “proving the negative.” The turf should be carefully examined for disease and insect pests. Once they are ruled out, evaluate cause and effect. “What was the recent weather? Did we do anything to the grass? Is the irrigation system functioning, sprayer calibrated, mower set up right, etc. With an abiotic stress the cause and effect is usually clear if one is honest about the current conditions. Think `it was 100-degree on Tuesday, what did I miss?’ or, `I you put nine products in the tank, what do I expect?”’
Diagnosing turf problems – both abiotic and biotic – can be tricky, Kennelly says. When in doubt, it is best to work with a diagnostic lab. Sign up for newsletters, blogs, and social media from your region’s turf specialists who can tell you what is going on in your area.
“However, a few key pointers are to look for patterns in space and time,” Kennelly says. “Diseases are more likely to start in one area and then get worse over time.” Abiotic issues are more likely to be “all at once.” But, there is still a lot of variation. “Think about the weather conditions and what sorts of stresses or diseases could be occurring. Consider any activities at the golf course over the past few weeks – has there been anything unusual? What has the weather been? Taking photos and notes over the time can help you keep track of when/where issues started. This can be valuable within one season and from year-to-year.”
John Torsiello is a Torrington, Conn.-based writer and frequent GCI contributor.
About 25 years ago, my friend Dave Heegard and I cooked up a crazy idea.
A lot of you probably know Dave from his days with the Pursell/Polyon crew at FarmLinks and, more recently, his leadership of LebanonTurf. Back then, Heegs was running the old Scotts Professional business and I was overseeing the GCSAA Foundation (the forerunner to today’s awkwardly named EIFG).
People forget what a powerhouse the Scotts Company was in the golf business in the second half of the 20th century. They were dominant players in the fertilizer, seed and chemical business thanks to a world-class network of tech reps who we’re consulting agronomists as well as salespeople. And, under Heegard’s watch, their support for GCSAA and the profession was boundless.
Dave and I got to talking one day about a nagging problem for golf at large...the lack of diversity. Not only was it an issue in the pre-Tiger days of the Tour but a surprising number of clubs still excluded blacks and women. Moreover both the GCSAA membership and the famed Scotts tech rep network were virtually 100-percent white guys. This was a perception problem for GCSAA and, to some extent, a business issue for a big public company like Scotts.
So we cooked up a scholarship/recruiting program with a goal of attracting “non-traditional” students to the golf/turf business. Scott’s put a pile of money behind the idea and the foundation jumped into action to bring it to life in 1990. And voila! The new scholarships would help bring more African-Americans and women to our business.
The Scott’s Scholars program was well-conceived, well-intentioned, well-funded, well-promoted and, well...largely ineffective in achieving its original goal.
Well, for one thing, there are many scholarships and programs targeting the best and brightest young people of color. They can choose many paths and, to some I’ve spoken with over the years, this profession appeared to be awfully close to farming.
And, despite Tiger Woods, the First Tee and dozens of other programs, far too few young African-Americans are exposed to or interested in a career in golf course management. There is very little here to attract people of color. Or women for that matter. We may think we’re welcoming to all but, outside looking in, it must still appear to be pretty homogeneous.
I hope you’ll read our cover story on the long journey Ron McWhorter made from laborer to superintendent at The Landing in Georgia. He’s black but it’s not a story about overcoming racial bias. Yes, the fact that he is now one of only perhaps 25 black superintendents in the U.S. is cause for a small celebration. But the fact that he was a career assistant who persevered at the same facility for a quarter-century and, in a job market overflowing with good supers, was chosen to lead his operation is cause for a blowout bash.
In my mind, the color of the very humble Mr. McWhorter’s skin had zero to do with his promotion. Instead, I believe he was chosen — as Dr. King said — on the content of his character. That’s exactly the kind of story Dave Heegard and I hoped for way back in the day.
When it comes to irrigation maintenance and repair the responsibility at most golf courses usually falls to the assistant superintendent or second assistant. Why? Because repairs and troubleshooting need to be done by someone who is responsible and has the ability and understanding of how important the irrigation system is to the overall maintenance and operation of the course.
An irrigation technician is a great asset to not only the golf course, but also to the irrigation system. Having a staffer who is solely responsible for maintaining the irrigation system helps the system operate better, have fewer problems and most likely save water. Irrigation technicians are proactive with maintenance as opposed to being reactive, which is the case at most courses.
Most high-end courses have irrigation technicians, with some facilities employing more than one. Whether there is an irrigation technician (or technicians) is usually dependent on how large the irrigation system is or how much trouble it is causing.
Intuitively, the more sprinklers the system has the more maintenance it requires. Likewise, an older irrigation system needs more maintenance. Consider designating an irrigation technician if system maintenance is taking too much of your or your assistant’s time, or if it is taking more than 75 percent of one of your staff’s time.
There’s no hard and fast rule. I know many 18-hole courses without an irrigation technician, and at least one course with three. One irrigation technician can maintain approximately 2,000 or so sprinklers with their associated controllers, valves, wiring and piping, but this will vary by course and number of holes.
What duties will an irrigation technician perform? First and foremost, addressing issues as they occur. These will include: broken pipes, leaking fittings, weeping sprinklers, non-operating sprinklers and controller or wiring issues. Routine work includes troubleshooting the system as necessary, as well.
When immediate issues do not have to be addressed, the technician can level sprinklers and set them to grade, check sprinkler arcs and nozzles and perform audits to improve irrigation scheduling. They can perform preventive maintenance, such as cleaning out controllers, exercising gate valves, tightening grounding clamps, replacing and leveling valve boxes, and cleaning and painting the pump house and pump station.
Of course, being mechanical oriented and not being afraid to get dirty doesn’t hurt, either. Wire tracking and fault finding is a necessary skill, but unfortunately it is one only perfected with experience. With new technologies – such as integrated decoder type systems and the use of HDPE pipe – more skills and training are needed because these systems use more sophisticated equipment.
Most superintendents determine the watering schedule and have the irrigation central control system in their office. However, in some cases, the irrigation technician may be watering or implementing the schedule. Usually the technician maintains the irrigation system central controller database. As we have discussed in this space before, it is essential to have an accurate database. The irrigation technician is best positioned to ensure that the correct sprinkler, nozzle and arc that they have serviced in the field are reflected in the database. By performing audits, they can also use the data collected to fine tune precipitation rates and runtimes.
Unfortunately, good irrigation technicians are hard to find and they are beginning to earn higher salaries. There is no real training program other than experience. Much like a spray technician, if you can identify someone on your staff with the right skillset you can train them on irrigation repair and send them to electrical troubleshooting or auditing classes.
Irrigation technicians can be well worth the cost especially if you have an aging irrigation system that has continual problems as they are less expensive than a new system.
If you have the budget to hire or the available staff, an irrigation technician will improve the operation and lengthen the life of your irrigation system. It should also provide for better playing conditions as the irrigation system will cause less issues on the course and have improved uniformity when compared to an irrigation system only maintained and/or repaired when necessary.
Brian Vinchesi, the 2009 EPA WaterSense Irrigation Partner of the Year, is president of Irrigation Consulting Inc., a golf course irrigation design and consulting firm headquartered in Pepperell, Mass., that designs irrigation systems throughout the world. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org or 978/433-8972.